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Ключевые слова #BF109E
Supermarine Spitfire is probably the most famous British fighter from the Second World War. It was an all-metal machine with a low wing configuration, characteristic elliptical wings, a classic tail and a retractable landing gear. The prototype flight took place on March 5, 1936. The Spitfire proved to be the RAF's staple of the war, which continued to do well after the war, remaining in production for 10 years. The history of the Spitfire began on the drawing desk of RJ Mitchell, Supermarine's lead designer. The first machines went to RAF units in 1938, but when the Battle of Britain began in the summer of 1940, there were already 19 squadrons of modern fighters at the airfields - together with the slightly older Hurricanes of the Islands, 600 aircraft were defending. With the expansion of hostilities, the Spitfire served wherever the RAF operated in the Far East, North Africa and Italy, during the Normandy landings and fighting in France, and finally during the operation in Germany in 1945. For many Britons, he became a symbol of victory in World War II. This wonderful machine has at least a dozen production versions. The most important of them are, among others the first mass-produced Spitfire Mk.I powered by a 1030hp Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine. It was above all this machine that made such an excellent contribution to the Battle of Britain. Many versions of this model have been developed, including PR Mk IA (reconnaissance version) or PR.IG (armed reconnaissance version). Another interesting version was the Spitfire Mk.V with a Rolls-Royce Merlin 45 engine with 1440HP. Later, Merlin 50 engines were also assembled. Serial production of this version started in 1941 and was the RAF's response to the appearance of the Messerschmitt Bf-109F. Another very successful version is the Spitfire Mk.IX, powered by a Merlin 61 engine with a 4-blade propeller. It was created as an opponent to the Focke-Wulf Fw-190 and was put into production at the end of 1941. This version was modified many times and, for example, in 1944 it got a new gyro sight, an enlarged rudder or a different wing system. Another major version is the Spitfire Mk.XIV with a Rolls-Royce Griffon 61 engine and a five-bladed propeller. Serial production started in October 1943. One of the last series produced was the Mk.21 version. This version had a Griffon 61 engine, a strongly reinforced structure and sheathing, the wings were extended, increasing their flying surface. Mass production started in March 1945. Technical data (Mk.XIV version): length: 9.14m, wingspan: 11.23m, height: 3.05m, maximum speed: 717km / h, rate of climb: 18.5m / s, practical ceiling: 13,200m, range maximum: 1815 km, armament: fixed - 4 7.7mm machine guns and 2 20mm Hispano Mk II cannons, suspended - up to 225 kg of bombs.The Messerschmitt Bf-109 is a German metal-structure single-engine fighter in a low wing configuration with a classic tail. It turned out to be the basic and most produced Luftwaffe fighter during World War II. The flight of the prototype took place on May 29, 1935, and serial production continued in the years 1936-1945. In total, it is estimated that a total of about 35,000 Messerschmitt Bf-109 fighters of all varieties were produced, many of which ended up in the Czech and Israeli air forces after the war. The roots of the Bf-109 go back to the competition announced in 1933 by the Luftwaffe for a new fighter plane. In competition with the He-112, the Bf-109 project initially lost, but thanks to Willie Messerschmitt's intrigues, the project could continue and eventually he was the winner of the competition, becoming the Luftwaffe's primary fighter. Several main variants of the Bf-109 were developed in the course of production. The first pre-production series was the Bf-109B (Berta) with different versions of the Junkers Jumo 210 (A or Da) engine. They were tested in Spain from 1937 during the Civil War. The next version is the Bf-109C (Caesar). They had a different engine than the B version, and extensive armament consisting of two 20mm and 2 HP 7.92mm cannons. These machines also fought in the skies of Spain. The third version is the Bf-109D (Dora) with the Junkers Jumo 210 Da or Daimler-Benz DB 600 engine. It fought in the September campaign, but at the turn of 1939/1940 it was replaced by the E version. The most famous model was the Bf-109E (Emil) with a Daimler-Benz 601A or N engine. It was the first to use a three-blade, not a two-blade propeller. Bf-109E fought in the French campaign, over England, and in North Africa and on the Eastern Front. The ace who started his career on the Bf-109E was the famous Adolf Galland. The next version is the Bf-109F (Friedrich), which, according to the German pilots, was the most aerodynamically perfect. It sowed the changed shape of the fuselage, wings, cabin fairings, but no new engine was used. It was put into service at the turn of 1940/1941. As part of the development of the design, further Bf-109 specifications were developed, of which the G (Gustav) version was produced in the largest number of copies. The most important change increasing the machine's performance was the installation of a new 12-cylinder Daimler-Benz DB605A engine with 1475HP. The armament of the Bf-109G was a pair of 13mm machine guns located in the fuselage in front of the cockpit fairing, and the MG151 20mm or heavier MK108 30mm cannon. The last mass-produced version was the Bf-109K (Kurfirst), which production started in October 1944. A Daimler-Benz DB 605DB or DC unit was used as the engine. The Bf-109K was the fastest version produced during World War II, reaching up to 730 km / h. Apart from that, two versions were created - H and Z, but they were rather experimental versions and their mass production did not start. Subsequent improvements in propulsion and armament made the Messerschmitt Bf-109 one of the most dangerous fighters of World War II, and at the same time showed the great potential of the slightly angular airframe created by Willi Messerschmitt. Technical data (version Bf-109 G-6): length: 8.95 m, wingspan: 9.92 m, height: 2.6 m, maximum speed: 640 km / h, rate of climb: 17 m / s, maximum range: 850 km, maximum ceiling 12000m, armament: fixed - 2 MG131 13mm machine guns and 1 MG151 20mm cannon, suspended - 250 kg bombs, or 2 Wfr missile launchers. Gr. 21.
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